The terror of bioterrorism

As a result of their success and the large proliferation of B. The BSAA reluctantly abandoned the city along with the American-led Federal Bioterrorism Commission ; [5] although Veltro had been eliminated, allowing the Americans to simply destroy the city was controversial in that it demonstrated how governments were unwilling to fight bioterrorist threats personally. InJill Valentine and Parker Luciani investigated the cruise ship Queen Zenobia in search of the missing Chris Redfield and Jessica Sherawatunaware that their location had been falsified, finding it infested with bizarre creatures spawned by the t-Abyss virus.

The terror of bioterrorism

The terror of bioterrorism

Most viruses that would be useful as bioterror agent quickly cause unique signs and symptoms that would allow isolation of the victims and thus prevent further spread of the disease. Many of the bacterial or viral incapacitating agents, however, slowly produce illnesses that would not be noticeable until some time later, and during this period they could be slowly and unknowingly spread to others.

Official denial helps this process and allows further penetration into the population. The continuing denial by the medical organizations that would be expected to respond to such outbreaks is not comforting, because these are the same organizations that would be responsible for responding to a bioterror attack.

Thus if an attack is obvious and results in immediate fatalities, we could expect an all out response. On the other hand, if an attack is not immediately obvious, such as would be expected if incapacitating agents were used, we might not expect an official response at all, even in the face of continuing casualties and illnesses in the population, and we might expect official denials instead in order to reassure a panicky public.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Biologic Agents Many agents useful for a bioterror attack, even the lethal agents, produce nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms, so it is important to be aware of these if many casualties occur within a short period of time in one location.

Unfortunately, in an era of managed health care, few hospitals and clinics probably have bioterrorism emergency plans in place.

The terror of bioterrorism

There has been some national planning for bioterror attacks, and regional emergency supplies and personnel have been placed at the disposal of public health officials. The gradual appearance of casualties with chronic signs and symptoms would probably not be recognized by public health officials.

When detected early, most of the biological agents listed in Table 1, even some of the most lethal agents, can be effectively treated with antibiotics or antivirals. However, an attack may go unnoticed for some time, and it might take some fatalities before public health officials notice that an attack may have occurred.

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There is a strategic national stockpile of antibiotics and antivirals tailored for bioterror attacks, and it can be deployed anywhere in the United States within 12 hours of a documented attack.

Thus it is probably not necessary to stock antibiotics and antivirals, some of which can be quite expensive, in anticipation of an attack. However, having on hand modest amounts of certain antibiotics that can be taken as soon as certain signs and symptoms occur could save your life.

If a terrorist group has the latest information and advanced expertise to produce resistant variants of biological agents, they could produce bacteria and viruses that can withstand the standard antibiotics and antivirals used for treatment. Although this scenario is considered unlikely, it could pose some potential problems for treatment of attack victims.

For most agents there are alternative drugs that can be used. Although some of these are not as effective as the first line treatments, they should be adequate for most patients.

In addition, there are steps that can be taken to increase that chance of survival of a biological attack. These will be discussed below. The Signs and Symptoms of Some Biological Agents Most bioterror agents do not cause unique clinical signs and symptoms that are immediately recognizable in exposed individuals.

This would defeat the purpose of a bioterror attack if the means were immediately known. Also, if the bioterror agent is quite obvious, then preventive treatment can begin immediately in people who were in close proximity but do not yet show any clinical symptoms.

The most common form of agent that could be used for a bioterror attack are bacteria. Since bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics, especially in the early phase of the infection, this is an appropriate approach to counter a bioterror attack.Bioterrorism and Biological Warfare Agents.

Prof. Garth L. Nicolson The Institute for Molecular Medicine Huntington Beach, California Sep 05,  · Biological and chemical weapons have gone out of use due to the inability to control them and the inhuman effects they have on their targets. But as Machia.

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Epidemiologic information on bioterrorism. Last Updated. 17 Sep ARCHIVES OF RELEVANT ARTICLES. Thoughtful writings on the public health threat or epidemiological impact of biological weapons.

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