For such AI systems every effort is made to incorporate all the information about some narrow field that an expert or group of experts would know, so that a good expert system can often outperform any single human expert.
Expert Systems An expert system is a computer program dedicated to solving problems and giving advice within a specialised area of knowledge. A good system can match the performance of a human specialist.
The field of expert systems is the most advanced part of AI, and expert systems are in wide commercial use. Expert systems are examples of micro-world programs: Uses of expert systems include medical diagnosis, chemical analysis, credit authorisation, financial management, corporate planning, document routing in financial institutions, oil and mineral prospecting, genetic engineering, automobile design and manufacture, camera lens design, computer installation design, airline scheduling, cargo placement, and the provision of an automatic customer help service for home computer owners.
The basic components of an expert system are a "knowledge base" or KB and an "inference engine". The information in the KB is obtained by interviewing people who are expert in the area in question. The interviewer, or "knowledge engineer", organises the information elicited from the experts into a collection of rules, typically of "if-then" structure.
Rules of this type are called "production rules". The inference engine enables the expert system to draw deductions from the rules in the KB.
For example, if the KB contains production rules "if x then y" and "if y then z", the inference engine is able to deduce "if x then z". The expert system might then query its user "is x true in the situation that we are considering? The substance to be analysed might, for example, be a complicated compound of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen.
The program would request further information if necessary, asking questions such as "has the patient recently suffered burns?
When the program had arrived at a diagnosis it would recommend a course of medication. The decimal number is a certainty factor, indicating the extent to which the evidence supports the conclusion.
The decimal numbers represent the statistical probability of the drug arresting the growth of pseudomonas. The program would make a final choice of drug from this list after quizzing the user concerning contra-indications such as allergies.
The program operated at the same level of competence as human specialists in blood infections, and rather better than general practitioners. The following is actual output from the expert system concerning a patient at Pacific Medical Center in San Francisco.
The findings about the diagnosis of obstructive airways disease are as follows: Elevated lung volumes indicate overinflation. Low mid-expiratory flow is consistent with severe airway obstruction.
Obstruction is indicated by curvature of the flow-volume loop which is of a severe degree. Discontinuation of smoking should help relieve the symptoms.Artificial intelligence: Artificial intelligence, the ability of a computer or computer-controlled robot to perform tasks commonly associated with intelligent beings.
The term is frequently applied to the project of developing systems with the ability to reason, discover meaning, generalize, or learn from past experiences. GIRO has entered into a partnership with the Institute for Data Valorization (IVADO) to carry out joint research projects combining the strengths of .
This chapter provides a brief overview of expert systems technology and knowledge-based systems and some of the theoretical ideas about knowledge that are emerging. Early artificial-intelligence (AI) research on the formalization of knowledge had primarily theoretical objectives.
An expert system (ES) is a knowledge-based system that employs knowledge about its application domain and uses an inferencing (reason) procedure to solve problems that would otherwise require human competence or expertise.
Over the last ten years, argumentation has come to be increasingly central as a core study within Artificial Intelligence (AI). The articles forming this volume reflect a variety of important trends, developments, and applications covering a range of current topics relating to the theory and applications of argumentation.
Chapter 10 Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems: Knowledge- Based Systems The problem must be narrow in scope. The shell must be of high quality and .