Cities and towns incorporated municipalities are also treated as citizens of the states in which they are located, but states themselves are not considered citizens for the purpose of diversity. Citizens of a U. Class actions that do not meet the requirement of the Class Action Fairness Act must have complete diversity between class representatives those named in the lawsuit and the defendants.
The factor ks is applied to each group of loads e. The determination of these factors is the responsibility of the designer, since it requires a detailed knowledge of the installation and the conditions in which the individual circuits are to be exploited.
For this reason, it is not possible to give precise values for general application. The maximum demand of an installation is the maximum rate of consumption expressed in amperes, kW or kVA.
It is generally taken as the average rate of consumption over a period of time. Example the minute maximum kW demand for the week was kW. Maximum demand does not include motor starting currents or other transient effects.
Fault currents and overload currents are also excluded. Maximum demand often referred to as MD is the largest current normally carried by circuits, switches and protective devices.
It does not include the levels of current flowing under overload or short circuit conditions. Maximum Demand is a greatest Diversity study notes all Diversity study notes that occur during a specific time The major disadvantage of allocating load using the diversity factors is that most utilities will not have a table of diversity factors and sometime it is not viable to determine accurate Diversity Factor.
The kVA rating of all distribution transformers is always known for a feeder. The metered readings can be taken to each transformer based upon the transformer rating. Assessment of maximum demand is very easy for Resistive LoadFor example, the maximum demand of a V single-phase 8 kW shower heater can be calculated by dividing the power 8 kW by the voltage V to give a current of This calculation assumes a power factor of unity, which is a reasonable assumption for such a purely resistive load.
Lighting circuits pose a special problem when determining MD. Discharge lamps are particularly difficult to assess, and current cannot be calculated simply by dividing lamp power by supply voltage. The reasons for this are Control gear losses result in additional current, the power factor is usually less than unity so current is greater, and Chokes and other control gear usually distort the waveform of the current so that it contains harmonics which are additional to the fundamental supply current.
So long as the power factor of a discharge lighting circuit is not less than 0.
Where to use Demand and Diversity factor: There is generally confusion between Demand factor and Diversity factor. Demand factors should be ideally applied to individual loads and diversity factor to a group of loads. Demand factor can be applied to calculate the size of the sub-main, which is feeding a Sub panel or a fixed load like a motor etc, individual Load.
Demand factors are more conservative and are used by NEC for service and feeder sizing. If the Sub panel have total load is kVAconsidering a Demand factor of 0.
The Diversity Factor is applied to each group of loads e. Demand factors and diversity factors are used in design. For example, the sum of the connected loads supplied by a feeder is multiplied by the demand factor to determine the load for which the feeder must be sized. This load is termed the maximum demand of the feeder.
The sum of the maximum demand loads for a number of sub feeders divided by the diversity factor for the sub feeders will give the maximum demand load to be supplied by the feeder from which the sub feeders are derived.
The estimated electrical demand for all feeders served directly from the service entrance is calculated by multiplying the total connected loads by their demand factors and then adding all of these together. This sum is divided by the diversity factor frequently assumed to be unity to calculate the service entrance demand which is used to determine ampacity requirements for the service entrance conductors.
When used Diversity and Demand Factor in an electrical design it should be applied as follows, the sum of the connected loads supplied by a feeder-circuit can be multiplied by the demand factor to determine the load used to size the components of the system. The sum of the maximum demand loads for two or more feeders is divided by the diversity factor for the feeders to derive the maximum demand load.
Calculate Size of Transformer having following details: Higher the values of load factor and diversity factors, lower will be the overall cost per unit generated.
The capital cost of the power station depends upon the capacity of the power station.The study notes that “f emale speaking characters on screen filled just % of all roles across the year time frame while less than 1% of all of all roles across the year time frame.
Bishops' Statement in immigration and cultural diversity - November Welcoming the Stranger Among Us: Unity in Diversity. This page contains the notes for our book Perfect Health Diet: Regain Health and Lose Weight by Eating the Way You Were Meant to Eat (US edition, Scribner, ), plus nationwidesecretarial.com the following titles to reach the notes for each chapter: Preface; Part I: An Evolutionary Guide to Healthful Eating.
Google should be a place where people from different backgrounds and experiences come to do their best work. That’s why we continue to support efforts that fuel our commitments to progress.
And while progress will take time, our actions today will determine who we are in the future. Student Employment Opportunities. The ASC and Tutor Clearinghouse are now hiring office interns, peer tutors, study group leaders, resident experts, and more.
Activities. A biodiversity activity from the San Diego Zoo. "Biodiversity Surey" is a unit survey using the school grounds and takes approximately school days. The "BIO-RING" activity investigates biodiversity and biomass on the school grounds.A worksheet to record results is included.
"Biodiversity Around Our School" is another activity to investigate the biodiversity of your school.