In many cases, this was because shareholders or the board felt that the previous leaders did not understand the massive disruptions facing their industries. These are not isolated events. Churn within many industries, due to incessant technological change, now means that leaders are being overtaken by their competitors at an unprecedented pace. Within that group, one-third fail to recover within the following five years.
The advent of writing allowed information to be expanded beyond the mental capacity of any single individual and to be shared across time and space.
The plant Carlsberg project medium of papyrus had certain advantages over clay tablets. Above all, it could accommodate far more text and was much lighter in weight, and in the course of the first millennium BC the technology of ink and papyrus spread first to the Greeks and later the Roman, and came to dominate the written cultures of the Mediterranean.
It does, however, also have a major disadvantage that is felt acutely by the modern historian: Although the Roman imperial machine will have consumed millions of papyri for its administration and communication, no more than a single discovery has ever been made in Italy, albeit a very Carlsberg project one the Herculanum Papyriand only a single papyrus has so far been found in Greece.
By contrast, the remains of about half a million papyri have been excavated in Egypt. The birth of papyrology Fig. Niels Iversen Schow Image courtesy of the Royal Library. The first attempt to learn about the ancient world through the study of a papyrus was made by the Danish classicist Niels Iversen Schow ; fig.
The cardinal had a papyrus in his possession, which had been acquired in Egypt by a merchant, and Schow undertook to edit the Greek text.
His edition was already published the following year. The papyrus turned out to preserve receipts for work on the irrigation dikes in the town of Tebtunis in CE.
By coincidence, the bulk of the papyri later acquired by the Carlsberg Foundation comes from this same town, whose texts have since been one of the main focuses for Danish Egyptological research. Schow was later elected member of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Letters, and subsequently became professor of archaeology and classical philology at the University Carlsberg project Copenhagen.
But Schow never edited another papyrus — perhaps because there were no papyri in Denmark at the time. The charred and fragmentary papyrus was part of the famous library that had been discovered at the so-called villa dei papiri at Herculanum in the s.
This is the only known discovery of papyri in Italy, and the documents have only survived because they underwent a process of carbonisation and thus became resistant to rot when Mount Vesuvius erupted in 79 CE, and the town was destroyed.
The next papyrus to arrive was a large, well-preserved Book of the Dead written in the hieratic script and accompanied by numerous illustrations, which was donated to the Royal Danish Encyclopedic Collection Det Kgl. While some further papyri arrived during the 19th and early 20th century, the establishment of an actual papyrus collection did not occur until This year, Johannes Pedersen, who would later become professor of Semitic philology at the University of Copenhagen and president of the Royal Academy of Sciences, went to Egypt to study at the famous al-Azhar University with a grant from the Carlsberg Foundation.
The Egyptologist and head of the Royal Library, H. Lange ; A second collection was established around the same point in time. Lange, who in the meantime had founded the Egyptological Institute at the university and become its first professor, received news in of the discovery of an Egyptian temple library, which was for sale on the antiquities market.
This was his first chance to acquire a substantial collection of Egyptian papyri, after thirty years of waiting, and the Carlsberg Foundation again provided the necessary funding.
As it happened so often in the antiquities trade, the original find had been split up, and several further batches appeared on the market through the following years. However, Lange was able to acquire nearly all of the material that came to his attention. The last parts of the temple library were acquired inand that same year, this second collection was similarly donated to the university and was eventually named the Papyrus Carlsberg Collection.
The two collections were located in different parts of Copenhagen until the s, when both Classical Philology and Egyptology moved to what is now known as the Southern Campus on the island of Amager.
Finally, inthey were united in a room build for the purpose in the new university buildings.
In the following, and for the sake of convenience, the merged collections will be described in the singular. Map of Egypt indicating the origin of manuscripts from the Papyrus Carlsberg Collection. Based on map by Jeff Dahl, Wikimedia Commons, The papyrus collection encompasses some manuscripts spanning three millennia from BC until CE, with a few parchments and paper items of a later date.
They display a wide geographical spread with most of Egypt represented, in addition to the single papyrus from Herculanum in Italy fig.
The majority of the manuscripts date back to the Greco-Roman period, and derive from the Fayum Oasis, above all the town of Tebtunis. At the centre of the collection are the remains of the Tebtunis temple library, a unique archaeological discovery that represents the only large-scale institutional library preserved from ancient Egypt.
The papyri, which date back to the first two centuries of the Common Era, were found in cellars below a building within the temple enclosure, where they had been left when the temple was abandoned in the early third century AD.
Estimated at several hundred manuscripts, this is the richest assemblage of Egyptian literary papyri known to date. It preserves a broad range of texts, including detailed manuals on the performance of various rituals, religious compendia and treatises, scientific texts concerned with divination and medicine, and narrative literature fig.
The texts shed detailed light on the operation of a temple and its priesthood, and many of the literary works are otherwise unknown.
Papyrus Carlsberg 1 is inscribed with a fundamental treatise on the celestial bodies known as the Book of Nut, second century AD. The Tebtunis temple library held several versions of the text, which is first attested nearly 1, years earlier in the reign of Sety I where it was engraved in stone in the underground temple of Osiris at Abydos.
A master version from the library was written in hieroglyphs and included detailed illustrations, while other simpler versions contained only the text and were written in the hieratic script.
The version here shown contains both the original text in the hieratic script and later commentary on the ancient composition written in demotic.A simpler, completed, project is always better than a end-all, be-all super solution that never emerges.
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